Supply the missing parts in the following dialouge :
Nevine and her friend Yamine are talking about their likes and dislikes
Nevine : we don't .......(1). ..............?
Yasmine : No , we don't have to hand in our projects next Thursday .
Neviene : I thought not , I really like working on the project , don't you ?
Yasmine : will ....(2) ......Iprefer my other subjects such as chemistry
Nevine : I love chemistry too but I don't like physics or maths how about you
Yasmine : .......(3) ......
Nevine : I'm glad we have similar likes and dislikes ......(4) ...., do you ?
Yasmine : no I would be pleased to come home with you .
(2) Give the situations :
1- A: I'm afraid I 've forgotten all my notebooks and pens at home
A: thank you very much
2- A: ......(2) ......
B: I hated the film , it was so boring
A: Really ? Many people thought it was an excellent movie
3- A: what shall we do this evening ?
B: ........ (3) ............
A: yes we really need the exercise
A: Thank you , I ' d love to .
B- Vocabulary & Structure
(3) choose the correst answer from a,b,c,d :
1- I'm soory I can't say anything because what ........me is confidential
a) he told b) did he tell c) had he told d) has he told
2- she asked .........borrow my chemistry book overnight
a- if she can b- can she to c- could she it d- if she could
3- she lied ......me , she never tells the truth
a- to b- at c- on d- for
4- Mona promised ...........and she usually keeps her promise
a- she comes b- to come c- coming d- will come
5- that soup tasted delicious , ....it ?
a- isn't b- wasn't c-didn't d- doesn't
6- lazy students blame their teachers ...... their poor marks
a- of b- for c- from d- with
7- Sherif isn't here , he .... have gone home to study for the test tomorrow
a- must b- can c- ought d- would
8- Although I ........have worked on my paper , I watched T V all evening .
a- needn't b- should c- can't d- must
9- my mother ......after me when I was ill
a- looked b- cared c- listened thought
10- we all have to ......against cheating
a- approve b- fight c- pay d- believe
11- professor Yacoub is very busy and on most days he has more thaan three operations
a- now and again b- back toback c- back to front by and large
12- I .... leaving early yesterday . I wish I had stayed to meet him
a- deny b- dislike c- regret miss
13- I .......him with all the information he needed to write the paper
a- charged b- protcted c- reminded d- provided
14- All Egyptians ......Naguib Mafouz on the receving the nobel prize
a- congratulated b- charged c-blamed d- convenced
15 – the earthquake caused .......all over cairo
a- acceleration b- havoc c- impact d- terrific
16- Sayed Dawish was the ........of his family
a- working class b- exile c- breadwinner d- patriot
(4) Rewrite the following sentences using the word (s) in the
brackets to give the same meaning :
1- I bought anew computer , it was un necessary but I didn't Knnow at that time (needn't)
2- the professor lectures for one hour usually finishing 5 minutes early or late (give or take )
3- His idea was to buy apresent for her birthday (suggested )
4- they said that failing all her subjects was her fault (blame )
5- it 's impossible that you didn't know he was very sick (must )
C) Reading comprehension
(5) Read and then write notes on the passage :
Here are some tips on reef safety . Avoid walking on the coral and wear shoes whenever you enter to protect your feet . also beware of stinging fish such as the stonefish and the scorpioinfish (booth stony in appearance and occasionally hard to distinguish from underwater rocks ) not to mention the sometimes lethal dorsal fin of the zebra striped lonfish . larger predators , such as sharks and barracudas , will generally leave you alone if you leave them alone . on sighting one , use caution and move slowly towards the coral or boat .
a- .................................................. ...........
b- .................................................. ........... Things you should do
Things you shouldnot do
(6) Read the following passage , then answer the questions :
Sayed Darwish was one of the pioneers of Arabi music and leaders of the modern Egyptian renaissance at the turn of the century . he was born in march 1892 , in an old district of Alexandria . he was sent to school in 1899 where his musics teacher , Samir Effendi , encouraged him in his love of music . at the age of eight he was excellent in singing "Mowashahat " (short songs ) and religious poems
In 1915 he started to develop Arab music , which glorified his name . he settled in cairo where his fame was widespread and as aresults stage managers and troupes completed in attracting Darwish to join them . He eventually formed his own group and actresses in 1921
Darwish was an innovator of arab music and songs . He has always been aware that genuine art should be derived from real life . he clearly expressed the feelings and aspirations of the people and events of his time in his songs and music . he liberated arab music from its conventional forms . he excelled in music for national songs due to his close ties with leaders of the national movement for independence early in the century , like Saad Zaghloul and Mustafa Kamel . Egypt's great writers ,poet and thinkers rightly called him 'the peoipe's Musician "
A- Answer the questions :
1- when did Darwish start to produce his own music ?
2- where did Darwish become famous ?
3- Why were national songsd aparticular strength of Darwish ?
4- Why was said Darwish called " the people 's Musician ?
B- Choose the correct answer :
5- The main idea of paragraph one is syed Darwish ..............
a- had avery good music teacher at school
b- had amusical talent at avery young age
c- was apioneer of short songs and religious poems
6- the work " eventually " is closest in meaning to :
a- initially b- sincerely c- finale d- evenly
7- the work " genunie " is closest in meaning to :
a- geniuys b- imaginative c- creative d- real
8- Stage managers wanted Sayed Darwish to join them because ........
a- he had close ties with nationalist leaders
b- he formed his own group of actors and actresses
c- his fame was wide spread d- he settled cairo
D- The Novel
(7) Answer the following questions :
1- a- what did finding agold Liama in the tomb prove ?
b- what was Amailia's relationship with lander ?
c- what did thepolice think the first time they came ?
2- Read the quotation then answer the questions :
" come and get ahot drink . you must be very tired "
a- who said these words and to whom ? b- when were they said ?
c- why was the person very tired ?
3- complete the following sentences :
a- Dr . Hafez used the laser machine to .........
b- the ..... in the skull found in the tomb could have been caused by ..........
c- After the discovery of the royal mask pablo was informed and he ..............
(8) Write two paragraphs of five sentences each about :
is it possible for a woman to be awife , mother and have acreer at the same time ? Nowadays many women have successfully combined these three jobs .Do you agree ? why or why not ? First decide on your position : whether you agree or not and then write at least 2 reasons that support your opinion
(9) a- translate into Arabic :
Mozart was one of the greatest composerswho ever lived . he was born in salzbuing . Austria in 1765 . Even when he was very yound . mazart loved music . his father who was the leader of an orchestra was very happy that his soun was very interested in music
b- Translate into English :
يتوقع خبراء الأرصاد الجوية إنخفاض درجات الحرارة من اليوم و طوال الساعات 72 المقبلة على الأقل
(1) Supply the missing parts in the following dialogue :
Samy is a university student applying for asummer job in a travel agency and he is being interviewed by the manager
Manager : good morning . please take aseat
Samey Good morning . thank you
Manager : ..........(1) ..........?
Samey : because Iam really interested in this oppotunity of work
Manager : ..... (2) ............
Samey : No , I don't but I learn fast
Manager : what are you qualifications ?
Samey : ...... (3) .................
Manager : I can see you are very enthusiast
Samey : ...... (4) ......................
2- Give the situation:
1- A : How quickly can you get me to tahrir Square ?
B: it's a 30 minute drive . traffic is very bad today
A: can't you get there faster ? I ' m very late
B: I'll do my best .
Place : ........... Speaker A: ......... speaker B: ...........
2- A: Good morning . I 'd like to reserve atable for four for tonight
B: could you please hold on until I check reservation ?
A: yes I 'll wait
B: I' m sorry , sit , we 're fully booked tonight . how about tomorrow ?
A: ok , please reserve atable for four people at 6 ' oclock tomorrow evening and make sure we have aview of the Nile
B- Vocabulary & structure
3- choose the correct answer from a,b,c,d :
1- .............I' ve saved enough money , I 'll buy acar
a) As long as b) as soon as c) Finally d) Unless
2- Because I need the money , I will work in both jobs .........until December
a) simultaneously b) consdequently c) subsequently d) sequentially
3- Hany had to work very hard ........he could pass the test
a) so that b) in order to c) because d) so as to
4- He had ..... few friends at school that he felt unhappy
a) such a b) so c) too d) avery
5- the movie was ...... good one that it won many awards
a) such b) such a c) so d) very
6- He plays the piano ..... well
a) too b) absolutely c) extremely d) hardly
7- the mail hasn't come yet . it ..... delivered by one o'clock today
a) is b) has been c) was d) will be
8) .........the buses were crowew , the traffic was smooth
a) in spite of b) Despite of c) Although d) Even
9) Some ....... people think ablack cat brings bad luck
a) ambitious b) superstitious c) jealous d) ridiculous
10 Farmers will ...... their crop when it is ready at the right time
a) honour b) celebrate raise d) harvest
11- I ..... him to stop smoking and do more exercises
a) advised b) announced c) suggested d) dave advice
12- He .......him to stop smoking and do more exercises
a) improved b) refused c) believed d) ) objected
13- in order to hand in the final report on time , the whole team had to work .....
a) over the moon b) putting their feet up
c) around the clock d) to live and learn
14- Clever employees get ..... quickly as long as they keep in their work
a) retired b) promoted c) enrolled d) sel – employed
15- During festivals there are colourful ..... through the streets
a) processions b) sculptures c) ancestors d) superstitions
16- many adults ..... in evening classes to stdy Englidh
a) join b) take c) interested d) enroll
4- Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets to give the same meaning :
1- I'm happy to stay late to help you finish the work ( don't mind )
2- I arrived very late at the train station .the result was that I missed the train
( consequently )
3- the manager wll inform me of his decision next Thursday (I )
4- He was very tired . he went to bed at nine o'clock (so ........ that )
C- Reading Comprehension
5- Read and then write notes on the passage :
Native Americans ( the original inhabitants of the USA) had various beliefs about meters . Some feared them while others didnot . the blackfeet . believed that a metro was asign that sickness would come next winter . the Wintu referred to meteors as shooting stars . the pomo thought ametero was an omen of war and death . the Luiseno believed that meteros were merely stars which suddenly moved . the huans explained meterssimply as aperson's soul on its way to the afterlife
........(1) ..................................... Native American tribes that feared meteors
..............(2)............................ Native American tribes that didnt fear meteors
.............(3).................................. .......... Whatnative American tribes thought of meteors
6- Read thefollowing passage , then answer the questions :
The dragoon boat festival also known as the double faith festival occurs on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar . it is one of the most important annual chinese festivals
The story of this colourful summer festival concerns afamous chinese scholar statesman named chu yuan who served the king of chu . As a loyal minister , chu yuan at first enjoyed the full confidence and respect of the king . eventually , he was discredited and found himself in disfavor . chu Yuan was never able to regain to emperor's favour and on the fifth day of the fifth month in ghe year 295 B.C at the age of 37 Chu Yuan clasped astone to his chest and plunged into the milo River in the human province
Repeating the minster as an upright and honest man , the people who lived in the area jumped into their boats and rushed out in avain search for him . this unsuccessful rescue attempt is apart of what the dragion boat festival commemorates every year . probably the most exciting and interesting aspect of the festival is the racing of dragon boats . these races not only symbolize the people's attempt to save chu yuan they also demonstrate the chinese virtues of cooperation and teamwork
1- How did Chu yuan kill himself ?
2- why did Chu yuanKill himself ?
3- what is the most important event in the festival
4- what does this event represent
5- Every year during the dragon boat festival the
a) effort to find Chu yuan in the river is remembered
b) story of Chu yuan's fall from favour is acted out
c) people in hunan province plunge into the milo River
d) people respect the minister in their province
6- " Discrdited " is closest in meaning to :
a) shamed b) disturbed c) admired d) questioned
7- the word " they " in bold refers to :
a) Chinese virtues b) people
c) races d) cooperations and teamwork
D- The Novel
A- Answer the following questions :
1- a) Where was pablo when they discovered the left of the royal mask ?
b) why was Dr Hafez suspicious of pablo ?
c) How did Leila stop lander from escaping ?
2- " look up there Doctor "
a) who said these words and to whom ?
b) where were they ?
c) what did the doctor see ?
3- a) Martin Lander went to Acomayo because ......
b) the village women gave Amalia .......
c) leila was aheroine because ............
Student Assistants Needed for the summer
Star Travel is a travel agency that provides ticketing services and organizes tours for clients in Egypt and all over the world .
We urgently need young people to assist us with administrative office work for the months of july and august . We are looking for university students or for young people to begin their studies good command to English is essential for this position .
Apply in writing to :
Mr Karim Ibrahim
Human Resources manager
35 , Shahin street
8- write aletter applying for the job saying that you have the qualifications . they require and that you are very interested in the job . Describe your personal qualities that would make you suitable Ask for an interview
your name is Amir and you live at 200 Nasr Road , Cairo
F – Translation
Translate into Arabic- a : 9
people nowadays need to understand that learning must be lifelong . this is necessary because the world of work is changing very fast . to remain employable , people must always look ahead and learn new knowledge and skills
Translate into English :b
للوسائط المتعددة دور عظيم فى تعليم اللغات الأجنبية فى المدارس إذا ما أحسن إستغلالها
A ******************************** Functions
(1) Supply the missing parts in the following dialogue between Ibrahim and a salesman in abig store :
Salesman : can I help you sir ?
Ibrahim: yes please .......(1) .......
Salesman : Acomplaint ? what about ?
Ibrahim : About the TV set I bought last week
Salesman : ............... (2) ......................
Ibrahim : the screen is very dark .
Salesman : But I had tried the set before you took , it ...... (3) ......?
Ibrahim : I know you had . however , when I went home I discovered this fault .
Salesman : ..........(4) ......?
(2) write the situation for the following min- dialogue :
1- A: when did you graduate ?
B: in 1995
A: do you speak english fluently ?
B: yes sir , I have worked as a translator in big company for two years
2- A: How can I help you ?
B: Well , my car has been stolen !
A: How ?
B: I had parked it last night of my house in Ramses street .
in the morning it wan't there!
A: what make is it ?
B- Vocabulary & Structure
3) choose the correct answer from a,b,c,d :
1- My brother has applied for a ......job for the summer months
a) permanent b) auxiliary c) temporary d) partial
2- My grandmother thinks that 13 is an unlucky number . this is a . .......
a) fancy b) fiction c) fact d) superstition
3-papyrus is made by laying ...... of reeds by side and crossing them with other ones
a) strips b) steps c) sides d) slides
4- some people think that it ..... an asteroid that hit the earth and killed the dinosaurs
a) must be b) can be c) must have been d) will have been
5- the teacher blamed the boy , sitting in the last row .... the noise
a) on b) with c) about d) for
6- The prisoner .... him self to the gate of the prison as aprotest
a) linked b) connected c) chained d) associated
7- She wouldn't mind if I didn't go ...?
a) did she b) wouldn't she c) hadn't she d) would she
8- you are wearing the shirt the other way round . it's
a) back to back b) back to front c) odds and ends d) back and front
9- She asked me where I .... then
a) stay b) did I stay c) was staying d) am I staying
10- I wouldn't have reached this stage unless she .... me
a) helped b) had helped c) was helping d) would help
11- Astronomers can ......... when eclipses occur
a) prevent b) protect c) predict d) protest
12- this airline flies to many ..... around the world
a) destination b) goals c) aims d) delegations
13- the old man is not happy ....... his big fortune
a) although b) but c) however d) despite
14- His coat was made of a ..... material
a) solar b) sensible c) synthetic d) severe
15- ......... book was the one you were pointing at ?
a) who b) whose c) wherry d) How much
16- we can tell the age of atree by counting the rings in the ..............
a) leaf b) bark c) truck d) trunk
(4) Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning :
1- she has avery sweet voice , but she does not want to be a singer (in spite of .........)
2- He toiled the policeman that he hadn't any voice .( denied)
3- It is not necessary for you attend the Board meeting . ( don't have to )
4- Someaone said that has seen Sami at school , but sami was in Alexandria .( Sami can't .....)
5- In the coming years , we will do most of our shopping on the internet . (.be.)
C- Reading Comrehension
(5) Read and and then write notes on the passage :
Elephants are the biggest living land animals alive today . For a long time elephants have heleped people they have carried things , taken people from place to place and moved huge trees in wartime they have been used as " livind tanks" some people believe that elephants are afraid of mice this is not true in fact elephants have such poor eyesight that they would usually not see amouse even if one came near them .
They are helped people by .... (1) ... from one place to another
In wartime : people ..... (2) ...... elephants as living tanks
Eyesight : they have very ... (3) ....
(6) read the passage , then answer the questions :
Many experts believe there are too many people in the world . Unless there are big changes in the way people think about the number of children they should have , the world's population will double in 25 years . there will be more than 20 cities with populations greater than 20 million . now there is only one
Some people who do not understand what " overpopulation means point to countries such as Australia and say " there is plenty of room there " although most of australia is unpopulated andmuch of it is thinly populated , there are reasons for this firstly , much of the lands that is not desert is not suitable for anything , not even growing grass . another major problem we shall have to face as the world's population grows is a shortage of energy , we are using up coal and oil when they have been used up , we can make electricity from the heat of the sun and moving water , but we donot yet have the technology to do this in abig way
Perhaps the biggest problem we shall have the world's population doubles will be pollution the air we breathe is already badly polluted
A) Answer the following :
1- How many present cities have apopulation of over 20 million ?
2- According to the passage , why is agreat area of Australia unpopulated ?
3- Mention two problems we will face as a result of overpopulation
4- what does the underlined word refer to ?
B) Choose the best answer from a,b,c,d:
5- in order to prevent the world's population from being doubled , there must be achange in .......
a) the methods of agriculture b) sources of energy
c) the way people think about the number of chilren they should have
d) the education of the great numbers of children
6- when coal and oil have been used up , we shall .......
a) search for other sources of energy
b) wait for scientists to solve the problem
c) use computers instead
d) try to do without them or any other kind
7- We do not make electricity from the heat of the sun on alarge scale because .....
a) we don't have the rquired money b) it is harmful
c) we don't have the technology needed for thet d) it is just impossible
D- The Novel
(7) a- Answer the following questions :
1- what similarities were there between the ancient Egyptians and the Incas ?
2- How did Dr Hafez and this group date the cloth they found inside the tombs ?
3- Why did Martin lander go to the tomb in the middle of the night ?
b- Answer the following quotation and then answer the questions :
" it's like the face of the sun . look at the sun's rays . How wonderfull "
1- how said these words ? 2- what was the speaker describing ?
3- who found that precious object ?
c- Complete the following :
1- the Incas killed women and servants and buried them with the king so that ......
2- the customs at limal let leila through when ..........
3- Although the Incas didn't have any writing .......
E – Writing
(8) Write two pragraphs of five sentences each about :
The advantages of buying local products labelled " made in Egypte "
Guiding points :
Great variety Egyptian taste cheaper prices
Help local industries work opportunities National income
(9) translate into Arabic :
Many people like to collect things like stamps , for example . some stamp collections are very valuable . Usually the fewer the number of people who have astamp in their collections , the more valuable that stamp is .
b) translate into English : إن حفلات الزفاف مناسبات هامة فى كل بلد ، و هناك تقاليد للزفاف تختلف بإختلاف البلد
A- ******************************** functions
1- Supply the missing parts in the following dialogue between Nada and Hany who are talking about an advertisement Nada has read in the newspaper :
Nada : Have you read the newspaper today ?
Hany : .... (1) ...... What is there in newspaper today ?
Nada : there is avery attractive advertisment on the third page
Hany : what is it about ?
Nada : ..... (2) ........
Hany : an accountant ? This may be a good chance
Nada : ........... (3) .................
Hany : yes , I will , When will the appliction forms be available /
Nada : Next Saturday ... (4) ...?
Hany : of course , you can come ?
(2) Give the situation for the following mini – dialogue :
1- A: What's wrong with you ?
B: I have nasty headache
A: How long have you been suffering from it ?
B: Two days
A: Let me examine you
2- A: Why are you late ?
B: the metro has broken down
A: But you are always late for the first lesson
B: I'm sorry , sir , I 'll not be late again
B: Vocabulary & Structure
(3) Choose the correct answer from a,b,cor d :
1- Rubbish is acheap sort of ......... energy
a) nuclear b) non- smoking c) non – renewable d) renewable
2- Mrs Mubarak has ............. powerfully for children 's rights
a) promoted b) argued c) defended d) supported
3- your sister is ...... do her work now
a) should b) has to c) supposed d) ought to
4- The football match was ..... because of bad weather
a) put off b) taken off c) put away d) taken away
5- space cruisers will probably ..... the earth at aheight of 320 kilometers
a) wander b) orbit c) move d) fly
6- the eclipse of the sun is called a ..... eclipse
a) polar b) lunar c) solar d) regular
7- what ..... if he had ;eft the meeting ?
a) will happen c) would happen
b) had happened d) would have happened
8- the ....... is someone who speaks or acts for you or for a company
a) presenter b) representative c) advertiser d) educator
9- plants can grow without soil ...... they get food from water
a) as much as b) as far as c) as long as d) as many as
10- my son has been ..... in the music class . He would like to practise playing the guitar
a) enrolled b) precribed c) delivered d) shared
11- There was an international rescue operation to save Abu Simble temples from being .......
a) substituted b) disconnected c) overcrowded d) submerged
12- Don't stay up all night to revise for an exam because this usually works ..... you in the end
a) for b) at c) against d) on
13- That soup tasted delicious , .... it ?
a) isn't b) wasn't c) doesn't d) didn't
14- the ..... of the tree is the though outer layer ofthe trunk
a) branch b) bark c) root d) leaf
15- the interviewer asked the professor .... he has worked at any foreign universities
a) whether b) unless c) that d) whatever
16- the teacher told us ..... an interesting story
a) so b) thus c) very d) such
(4) Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning :
1- the boy had fallen off his bicycle and the policeman hurried to help him at once ( No sooner ....)
2- I' m willing to stay till you return ( don't mind )
3- She usually get up late in the morning ( is used to .... )
4- She told her employer that she was sorry she had arrived late ( apologized)
5- People admired the man for his courage (by )
(5) Read and then write notes on the passage:
The American Indians were the first people to chew gum .
This gum came from a Special tree that grew on their land
. in 15848 , a sailor called Jhon Curtis began selling it .
He was the first person to sell chewing gum .
He was the first person to sell chewing gum .
the gum he sold cost just a few piastres for two pieces
. it became popular very uickly even though
it was very hard to chew .
Nowadays , other things are added to
gum to make it soft and sweet .
(6) Read the following passage and answer the questions :
Many people believe the legend that there is acurse on the tomb of Tutankman . the tomb of tutankman was discovered by Lord carrnarvon in 1920 . He deied from blood poisoning three months after opening the tomb . No one would have thought his death had any thing to do with the tomb if it had not been for aletter from Marie Corlli to The new York world newspaper . . in this letter she said that she owned a book which told the story of the curse
Not long after the death of Lord carnarvon , an American who said he had caught a cold while visiting the tomb , also died
As time passed , the list of people who had been " punished " by the curse grew and for many people there was too much evidencefor the story to be ignored . however , a number of facts have been forgotten
In 1982 an American policeman who had aheart attack claimed it was because he had spent time looking after the Tutankhamen Exhibition in San Francisco . He was not believed when it was discovered that another man who had actually slept in the tomb while guarding it for seven year wasn't only alive but in good health . thus the idea of the curse was proved to be afllacy
A) Answer the following :
1- What made the people think that lord carnarvon's death was caused by the curse of Tutankhamen ?
2- Why did the man sleep the tomb of Tutankhamen for seven years ?
3- Do you really think is acurse on the tomb of Tutankhamen ? why ?
4- who does the underlined word refer to ?
B) Choose the correct answer from a,b,cor d :
5- Lord carnarvon died of .........;..
a) the curse of the tomb b) blood pressure
c) an accident d) blood poising
6- Many people could not ignore the story of the curse because ........
a) they had no evidence ,at that time
b) they had too much evidence , at that time
c) they failed to find any evidence
d) they managed to prove that it was evident
7) The new york world is a .......
a) city b) skyscraper c) newspaper d) network
D- The Novel
(7) a- Answer the following questions :
1- why did Dr Hafez have to keep good relations with the UNEsCoO people ?
2- To what extent was Leila lucky in the story ? (mention two events )
3- How were the ancient Egyptian different from the Incas ?
B- Read the following quatation and then answer the questions :
" No I 'm afraid that wasn't me . I 'm a mining engineer , not an archaeologist"
1- Who said these words ?
2- Did the addressed person believe him / her ?
3- what was the speaker 's real job ?
3- Complete the following :
1- In order to be sure it was aroyal tomb .........
2- before she came to peru , Leila had worked with Dr Hafez in ....
3- the Incas lived at .....
Keeping aclean environment is the responsibilty of every citizen
Guiding points : role of the individual air pollution water pollution
Noise hygiene and public health